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The beatific vision will, in fact, be not only as evident, but also as immediate as our present intuition of personal consciousness.

But then we shall be on a level with the angels, who are subsistent intelligences or pure intuitives.

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Both in ordinary life and in philosophical discussions the term reason is of frequent occurrence in different significations.

Etymologically the word comes to us, through the French, from the Latin ratio , which is originally the functional noun of the verb reor , "I think" (i.e. According to Donaldson, res=h-ra-is , a derivative from hir=cheír (hand); hence res is "that which is handled", and means an object of thought, in accordance with that practical tendency of the Roman mind which treated all realities as palpable.

An irrational conclusion or a misleading association is as much a fact and a result as a correct conclusion; the existence of the latter is explained only by its logical parentage.

Hence the futility of trying to account completely for the existence of a human thought--the conclusion of a train of reasoning--simply by the accompanying sense-data and psychological associations.

An angel, in Scholastic philosophy, is practically the equivalent of noûs ( intellectus, intellegentia ) when used by such writers as Aristotle, Porphyry, Plotinus, or Pseudo-Dionysius, to denote not a faculty, but a species of being.

Opposed to this ideal intellection, so characteristic of Scholastic angelology, is our actual human experience, which is a gignómenon , a coming to be.Besides using reason ( Vernunft ) as distinguished from the faculties of conception ( Verstand ) and Judgment ( Urteilskraft ), Kant employed the word in a transcendental sense as the function of subsuming under the unity of the ideas the concepts and rules of the understanding.Subsequent German philosophers, as Schopenhauer complained, "tried, with shameless audacity, to smuggle in under this name an entirely spurious faculty of immediate, metaphysical so-called super-sensuous knowledge ".There is an important sense, however, in which the epithet "material" has been applied to reasoning, to denote illation in which the relational formality has not yet been dissected out.The same laws of thought rule the philosopher's reasoning and the peasant's, but the latter's conclusion will only be fairly certain when its matter comes within his usual cognizance.The meanest intellect is, to use an expression of St. Within a certain region our cognitive faculties are absolutely infallible.

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